Butterflies and mo have difficulty adapting to rapidly changing climates

Antraga (Cerapteryx graminis) did not begin to fly in early spring, but has moved further north. Within Finland’s distribution, the population is stable throughout the 21st century. Credits: Helmut Diekmann

Climate change will bring about major changes in species and biodiversity. According to a recent study conducted by the University of Helsinki and the Finnish Institute for Environmental Studies, there are few mo mo and butterfly species (scale opt) in Finland that can adapt to changing climates by advancing the flight period and moving further north. It has been shown to be the best. In contrast, about 40% of the scale optopt order species cannot respond by either method, resulting in a declining population.

Climate change is causing rapid changes in Finland’s nature. seed Keep up with the pace?Adjusting Climate change Can be revealed through early phenology such as moth And the flight period of butterflies, nesting of birds, or flowering of plants takes place earlier than before. Species can also be adapted by moving further north, as individuals move to new areas of better condition.

Researchers have found that wide enough, interconnected, high-quality habitats allow species to adapt to the challenges posed by climate change in order to conserve biodiversity in the face of intensifying climate change. It emphasizes that ensuring is of utmost importance.

A study conducted by the University of Helsinki and the Finnish Institute for Environmental Studies compared temporal changes in the flight duration of 289 moths and butterflies with spatial changes at the northern range boundaries and population changes over a period of about 20 years. ..

“Approximately 45% of the species we investigated have moved north or havetened their flight,” said Maria Helforce, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Helsinki. “We performed much better than 40% of the unresponsive species with either method. On average, the population of these unresponsive species decreased. 15 of the species in which both migrated. The largest increase was seen in%, indicating that the ability to adapt to changing environments is essential for the species. “

Few species have advanced phenology

Another interesting finding was the fact that almost half of the species moved north, while only 27% advanced in flight.

“This finding differs from observations made elsewhere in Europe, where it is much more common to advance flight periods between scale opts,” said Juha Pöyry, principal investigator at the Finnish Environmental Research Institute. I am.

The most advanced species in Finland are adult peacock butterflies and other species that overwinter. In fact, Finnish scale opt species seem to react more easily by expanding their range northward than by flying. Species found further north than before include Antoraga and rare copper.

An important signal for butterflies and moths to begin flying may be that the increased light in the spring is more important than the temperature itself. “

Sufficient habitat is essential

The lack of optimal habitat may be explained by the fact that the species do not respond optimally, that is, both flying and moving north.

“In order for organisms to move their habitat further north and respond to climate change, they need sufficient quality and appropriate habitat,” said Mikko Kusari, principal investigator at the Finnish Institute for Environmental Studies. Says.

The amount of habitat important to many mo mo and butterfly species has decreased, resulting in a decrease in the population of many species.For example, many Butterfly seeds Suffering from pasture loss.

“Population depletion usually does not provide a sufficient basis for species to spread to new areas, and a small number of populations adapt by changing the timing of flight by the population in that area. There is also less genetic diversity that can help, “adds Kussarri. In fact, protecting biodiversity requires, above all, maintaining large enough, interconnected, high-quality habitats.

Research is possible with long-term monitoring

The study used scale opt eye data Flight The period collected in two long-term monitoring projects coordinated by the Finnish Institute for Environmental Studies. Of the two, Finland’s national mo mo mo surveillance program was launched in 1993, and the butterfly surveillance program in agricultural landscapes was launched in 1999. Citizen observation datasets published through the Finnish Biodiversity Information Facility were used to calculate boundary shifts in species ranges.

“Without such a long-term monitoring program, the great contribution of volunteer butterfly and moth enthusiasts in collecting observations, and the cooperation of various research institutes, this would target hundreds of species. It would have been impossible to perform any kind of analysis, “said Associate, Professor Maryo Sastamoinen of the University of Helsinki.

Evening primrose in Siberia did not have time to adapt to climate change

For more information:
Maria H. Hällfors et al. Combining range and phenology shift provides a winning strategy for the Northern Scales Le for Eyes. Ecology letter (2021). DOI: 10.1111 / ele.13774

Quote: Butterflies and mo mo mo have difficulty adapting to rapidly changing climates (10 June 2021) Obtained from html on June 10, 2021

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Butterflies and mo have difficulty adapting to rapidly changing climates

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