Cell waste transport routes important for future treatment of cancer and dementia

Nuclear envelope budding (NEB) is S. Increased frequency during heat shock of cerevisiae. (A) Cells are heat shocked (38 ° C; n = 63–337). NEB peaked at 10.3% levels after 30 minutes and EDC showed a stable plateau of about 81% at 15-45 minutes. (B) Flake containing NEB and EDC in heat-shocked S. cerevisiae cells. Black arrows indicate NEB events, with the outer nuclear envelope clearly protruding outward and particles present in the perinuclear space. (C) Labeling density of gold particles between untreated cells and heat shock cells (30 minutes at 38 ° C) using anti-GFP antibody. Both Hsp104-GFP and guk1-7-GFP were preferentially localized in the EDC region compared to the remaining nucleoplasm. (D) Labeling density of Hsp104 using anti-Hsp104 antibody in wild-type and hsp104Δ cells. I received a heat shock at 38 ° C for 45 minutes. No gold particles were detected in the mutant strain showing antibody specificity. (E–G) Representative images of immunostained samples quantified by C and D and their respective models. Hsp104 and guk1-7 are significantly localized in the EDC region, but only one gold is detected in the Hsp104Δ mutant EDC. Scale bar: 300 nm (B); 500 nm (E–G). Abbreviation: EDC, electronically dense content. N, nucleus; NEB, nuclear envelope budding; V, vacuole. * NS

Previously undiscovered routes for transporting cellular waste may be important for future treatment of cancer and dementia. The researchers behind the study have discovered new pathways that cells use to remove cell waste products that would otherwise damage the cells’ genes.

new shipping The pathway crosses the membrane of the cell nucleus and usually protects DNA.In the study, the researchers emphasized cell To increase the traffic of small envelopes waste It is transmitted through the membrane of the cell nucleus. Thus, researchers show the pathways used to remove cellular waste that could otherwise damage the cell’s genome.

“This insight into the normal functioning of cells can be important for both treatments. cancer Dementia “. Johanna Höög, who led the study, is now published in a high-ranking scientific journal. PNAS..

“Using a high-resolution electron microscope, we were able to see how protein aggregates were delivered through the cell nucleus membrane in small envelopes, together with previously unknown in cell waste management. I explained the transport pathways, “said one of the co-authors of the Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology and Research at the University of Yeteboli.

Cells constantly form new proteins

Within the cell, new proteins are constantly formed, and other proteins are broken down into their constituents and recycled. This is important for cell health. Because, as with the accumulation of waste products in any environment, damaged proteins can be toxic.

“This completely unexpected link between transport through the nuclear membrane and quality control of cellular proteins was what I found most interesting,” said a project by a doctoral student at Gothenburg University. Says Jacob Croft, who is actively working on.

Phenomena common to cells of all species studied

The study also looked at how common the phenomenon of sending small envelopes through the cell nucleus membrane is. Researchers have been able to show that it has happened among all the species studied, from small single-cell parasites to human cells.

Later, when researchers stressed the cells in different ways. Hazardous substance Also high temperature, More proteins were accidentally folded, and researchers saw an increase in the frequency of waste transport through the cell nucleus membrane.

“It’s probably most important that the damaged protein is isolated from the genome, where it can cause mutations and even more damaged proteins,” says Johanna Höög.

Waste can kill cells

If in-cell waste management is not functioning properly, a downward spiral can occur in which waste eventually kills the cell. It can occur in the brain with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias.

“On the other hand, cancer cells produce more waste products than healthy cells. This is used by some chemotherapy to stop the waste management of normal cells, and the death of cancer cells than normal cells. Accelerates and relieves cancer. ” Johanna Höög.

Possible new cancer treatments

Of the cell Waste management The system is already the focus of cancer treatment attacks, and researchers feel that the discovery of unknown transport routes may lead to new, more effective treatments for cancer.

When researchers treated cells with chemicals that stopped waste treatment and used them today to treat cancer, the transport of waste through the cell nucleus membrane increased.

“We can say that we have sealed all the openings in the cell processing plant known as the proteasome, which instead caused the cells to compensate and remove the misfolded protein through this transport pathway,” said the principal investigator. Said Johanna Höög.

“We now hope to receive more research funding to study the molecular mechanisms behind this cell waste transport and to investigate the phenomenon of cancer cells in more detail.”

This study is a collaboration between the Faculty of Science and Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University and the Wenner-Gren Institute at Stockholm University.

How cell fingertips help cells “talk” to each other

For more information:
Dimitra Panagaki et al, Nuclear Envelope Budding is a Response to Cellular Stress, Minutes of the National Academy of Sciences (2021). DOI: 10.1073 / pnas.2020997118

Quote: The important cell waste transport route for future treatment of cancer and dementia (September 2, 2021) is https: // Obtained from treatments.html on September 2, 2021.

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Cell waste transport routes important for future treatment of cancer and dementia

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