Previously undiscovered routes for transporting cellular waste may be important for future treatment of cancer and dementia. The researchers behind the study have discovered new pathways that cells use to remove cell waste products that would otherwise damage the cells’ genes.
new shipping The pathway crosses the membrane of the cell nucleus and usually protects DNA.In the study, the researchers emphasized cell To increase the traffic of small envelopes waste It is transmitted through the membrane of the cell nucleus. Thus, researchers show the pathways used to remove cellular waste that could otherwise damage the cell’s genome.
“This insight into the normal functioning of cells can be important for both treatments. cancer Dementia “. Johanna Höög, who led the study, is now published in a high-ranking scientific journal. PNAS..
“Using a high-resolution electron microscope, we were able to see how protein aggregates were delivered through the cell nucleus membrane in small envelopes, together with previously unknown in cell waste management. I explained the transport pathways, “said one of the co-authors of the Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology and Research at the University of Yeteboli.
Cells constantly form new proteins
Within the cell, new proteins are constantly formed, and other proteins are broken down into their constituents and recycled. This is important for cell health. Because, as with the accumulation of waste products in any environment, damaged proteins can be toxic.
“This completely unexpected link between transport through the nuclear membrane and quality control of cellular proteins was what I found most interesting,” said a project by a doctoral student at Gothenburg University. Says Jacob Croft, who is actively working on.
Phenomena common to cells of all species studied
The study also looked at how common the phenomenon of sending small envelopes through the cell nucleus membrane is. Researchers have been able to show that it has happened among all the species studied, from small single-cell parasites to human cells.
Later, when researchers stressed the cells in different ways. Hazardous substance Also high temperature, More proteins were accidentally folded, and researchers saw an increase in the frequency of waste transport through the cell nucleus membrane.
“It’s probably most important that the damaged protein is isolated from the genome, where it can cause mutations and even more damaged proteins,” says Johanna Höög.
Waste can kill cells
If in-cell waste management is not functioning properly, a downward spiral can occur in which waste eventually kills the cell. It can occur in the brain with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias.
“On the other hand, cancer cells produce more waste products than healthy cells. This is used by some chemotherapy to stop the waste management of normal cells, and the death of cancer cells than normal cells. Accelerates and relieves cancer. ” Johanna Höög.
Possible new cancer treatments
Of the cell Waste management The system is already the focus of cancer treatment attacks, and researchers feel that the discovery of unknown transport routes may lead to new, more effective treatments for cancer.
When researchers treated cells with chemicals that stopped waste treatment and used them today to treat cancer, the transport of waste through the cell nucleus membrane increased.
“We can say that we have sealed all the openings in the cell processing plant known as the proteasome, which instead caused the cells to compensate and remove the misfolded protein through this transport pathway,” said the principal investigator. Said Johanna Höög.
“We now hope to receive more research funding to study the molecular mechanisms behind this cell waste transport and to investigate the phenomenon of cancer cells in more detail.”
This study is a collaboration between the Faculty of Science and Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University and the Wenner-Gren Institute at Stockholm University.
Dimitra Panagaki et al, Nuclear Envelope Budding is a Response to Cellular Stress, Minutes of the National Academy of Sciences (2021). DOI: 10.1073 / pnas.2020997118
Quote: The important cell waste transport route for future treatment of cancer and dementia (September 2, 2021) is https: //phys.org/news/2021-09-pathway-cell-important-future- Obtained from treatments.html on September 2, 2021.
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Cell waste transport routes important for future treatment of cancer and dementia
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