Enzymes protect the skin by ignoring microbes and viruses

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The human body is constantly exposed to a variety of environmental actors, from viruses to bacteria to fungi, but most of these microorganisms have little or no reaction from the skin responsible for monitoring and protecting external hazards. Does not cause at all.

So far, researchers have been uncertain about how that happened and why our skin was constantly vigilant and not inflamed.

In a study published on May 21, 2021 Scientific immunochemistryScientists at the University of California, San Diego Medical School identify and describe two enzymes responsible for protecting the overall health of our skin and body from a myriad of potential microbial invaders. These enzymes, called histone deacetylases (HDACs), block the body’s inflammatory response in the skin.

“I understand why I tolerate certain microbes that live on my skin, but when the same bacteria are exposed elsewhere in my body, I get very sick,” said Richard Gallo, MD, a prominent professor of ImaGigli dermatology. The doctor says. Chairman of the Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. “Our study identified enzymes that act on the chromosomes of certain skin cells that provide skin immune tolerance.

“If these enzymes do not instruct our cells to ignore certain bacteria, we will constantly rash the skin.”

Gallo et al. State that the potential mechanism by which the environment interacts to alter cell function is due to epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Within skin cells, proteins called Toll-like receptors (TLRs) allow cells to sense their surroundings and potential hazards.

In most organs, TLRs act as a warning system that triggers an inflammatory response to the threat. However, in skin cells, two identified HDAC enzymes, HDAC8 and HDAC9, inhibit the inflammatory response.

“This is one of the first demonstrations of how the microbiota interacts with skin epigenetic factors and regulates skin behavior through inflammatory responses,” said George, an associate professor of dermatology and cytomolecular medicine. Dr. Sen said. University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. “Whatever the environment we are facing, it can change a person’s specific response to it. These epigenetic changes are reversible, unlike DNA changes, so these enzymes It may be possible to control the inflammatory response of the skin by targeting. “

The study was initially conducted in a mouse model in which HDAC8 and HDAC9 were genetically knocked out. As a result, mouse skin was unable to withstand exposure to microorganisms and viruses, resulting in an increased immune response. The team then placed human cells in a culture dish to reproduce the findings.

According to Gallo, the study could change the way doctors treat certain types of skin inflammation and other skin disorders.

“This is a whole new way to think about skin immune regulation,” Garo said. “Through changes in HDAC activity, we provided a possible way to investigate and soothe unwanted inflammation by manipulating the skin cells themselves. Designed to turn these enzymes on or off in the future. The drugs used may help treat skin diseases. Antibiotics. ”

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For more information:
Yu Sawada et al, Innate immune tolerance of the skin is mediated by epigenetic regulation of MAP2K3 by HDAC8 / 9. Scientific immunochemistry (2021). DOI: 10.1126 / sciimmunol.abe1935

Courtesy of the University of California, San Diego

Quote: Superficial relationship: Enzymes are microorganisms and viruses (2021) obtained from on May 21, 2021. Protects the skin by ignoring (May 21, 2014)

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Enzymes protect the skin by ignoring microbes and viruses

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