Mosquito love song sends mixed message about immunity

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Mosquito-borne diseases pose a risk to half of the world’s population, so scientists are trying to control the population or modify its properties to control human disease, either sterile or genetically modified. Is releasing male mosquitoes.

However, these techniques have not been able to spread rapidly due to the need for successful modified mating. mosquito Mosquitoes live in nature, and there is not enough research to fully explain which male traits females seek when choosing a spouse.

Well, the new Cornell study Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes investigate how a mating clue called “harmonious convergence” affects immunity to parasites, bacteria, and dengue virus. descendants, This has a significant impact on the trade-off Male mosquitoes Choose whether to invest energy in immunity or in traits that affect mating and fitness.

Previous studies have shown that when choosing a spouse, women use their ability to hit men’s wings as often as they do, as a clue to their physical fitness and desirability. In other studies Male descendants From a pair that converges harmoniously, you can better achieve harmonious convergence on its own.

“We decided to investigate whether the clues that women respond to correlate with downstream genes that men pass to their offspring, which may protect their offspring from parasites and pathogens,” said the Faculty of Insectology. Said Courtney Murdoch, an associate professor at. The Faculty of Agricultural and Life Sciences, and the senior author of the treatise, “Gender, Age, and Parental Harmony Convergence Behavior Aedes aegypti Descendants ”, released on June 11 Nature Communications Biology..

Christine Wrightmeier, a former postdoctoral fellow in Murdoch’s lab currently working at the Pirbright Institute in the United Kingdom, is the first author of this treatise.

In their study, researchers separated harmoniously convergent and non-convergent pairs. Aedes aegypti, Dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya fever, infects Zika virus. Males and females in each group were housed together for up to 4 days.Women avoid mating with non-convergence male In the wild, males harass and mate females under these conditions.

Researchers examined a subset of male and female offspring from convergent and non-convergent pairs. Next, we investigated the effects of pairing resulting from harmonized convergence on the three types of offspring immunity, and how these effects changed with the gender, age, and stage of life history of the offspring.

They tested humoral melanization. This is a defensive reaction in which an insect covers a pathogen or parasite with melanin in the intestine and then covers it with a wall to prevent infection. They do this by injecting small beads into the center of the mosquito, then removing the beads and assessing whether the beads are uncoated, partially coated or fully coated. I did.

They also injected fluorescently labeled E. coli into mosquitoes and tested how well they grew after 24 hours.And they exposed women (because men don’t eat blood) Dengue virus He then searched for the presence of the virus in tissues that transmit the virus during the blood diet, especially in the salivary glands.

Overall, men were less capable of melaninizing beads and resisting bacterial infections than women.

In addition, male offspring from convergent parents were significantly less capable of melaninizing than non-convergent male offspring.

“I think this is because converging paired males tend to invest more energy in their ability to converge in harmony with mating efforts than in immunity, at least for melanization,” Murdoch said. ..

At the same time, these males, at the same rate as young females, were better at preventing bacterial infections than their non-convergent peers, but their defenses declined rapidly as they grew older.

With respect to dengue, women from converging parents showed higher immunity early in life, which, as they grew older, weakened and matched offspring from non-convergent parents. But overall, the presence of the virus in saliva was so low that researchers concluded that further research was needed.

“The bottom line is that if convergence is effective, it will affect a man’s ability to respond in terms of immune response, and the direction of effect will probably depend on physiology. The costs associated with that immune response. . “

The findings also affect mosquito control, Murdoch said. She added that these approaches to controlling or replacing mosquito populations would become unsustainable in the field over time if the modified male introduced properties that were not desirable for female mosquitoes in nature.

Anyway, selective female fruit flies breed

For more information:
Christine M. Reitmayer et al, gender, age, and parental harmony convergence behavior affect the immune capacity of Aedes aegypti offspring. Communication biology (2021). DOI: 10.1038 / s42003-021-02236-5

Provided by
Cornell University

Quote: Mosquitoes love song, immunity obtained from on June 24, 2021 (2021, June 24) ) Send a mixed message about

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Mosquito love song sends mixed message about immunity

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