Many agricultural weeds have developed resistance to the available herbicides, making them increasingly difficult to kill. With few effective chemicals left and new herbicide classes imminent, farmers are reverting to older products with potential crop protection.
Dicamba has been on the market since the 1960s, but herbicides are used in only about 17% of US corn acres.Still, it seems to be effective against relatives of Amaranthus tubercii and its nasty weeds, but now Dicamba is sweet corn Due to a known sensitivity issue of the crop.
“Twenty years ago, herbicide susceptibility was the number one pest management concern in the sweet corn industry. There were many important hybrids that showed adverse reactions,” said USDA-ARS ecologist and adjunct professor of crops. Professor Marty Williams says. Science at the University of Illinois.Williams co-authored a new study at Weed science..
But scientists now know more about genes that help corn safely metabolize Dicamba and other herbicides. So it’s time for Williams and his research team to reassess the risk of sweet corn damage from Dicamba. And their recommendations provide practical guidance beyond sweet corn.
“Our research system represents other types of corn because the genes that give sweet corn resistance to deicamba and other herbicides are the same as field corn,” says Williams.
The gene in question, Nsf1, is a cytochrome P450 involved in the detoxification of multiple herbicide families in plants. With two functional copies of the gene, corn repels Dicamba’s cellular attack before causing damage. However, mutated versions of the gene are also present in some maize strains. Plants with two mutant copies of the gene are very sensitive to Dicamba, but the combination of mutant functional genes provides intermediate protection.
Postdoctoral fellow Chris Landau, who works with Williams, confirmed these patterns of sweet corn by applying Dicamba to three hybrids that represent functional, mutant, and intermediate genotypes. He sprayed herbicides at three stages of growth, V3, V6 and V9. Herbicide Use cyprosulfamide, which is safer for half the treatment.
“Our study is the first study of maize that simultaneously evaluated the combination of genotype, timing of application, and safety against Dicamba injury,” says Landau.
As expected, sweet corn with the mutant and intermediate Nsf1 genes showed more dicamba damage than corn with two copies of the functional Nsf1 gene. The study also showed that the latest timing of Dicamba application at V9 caused injury regardless of genotype, suggesting that previous applications are safer for all sweet corn strains. I am. A safer person relieved some of the symptoms, but did not completely eliminate the injury.
“Safety devices have helped us with almost every injury metric we examined, including ear damage, ear length, total ear mass, and grain mass,” Landau says. “Also, we consistently reduced injuries early in V3 and V6, but the effect wasn’t as serious as in V9 applications.”
The results show that dicamba can be safely used in sweet corn (and labeled approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency), taking into account some caveats: Apply Safener prior to V9 and mutate. Do not apply to sweet corn containing body Nsf1 geneIf you can.
“This task actually establishes what is needed for more utilities. Dicamba “This includes working with breeders on ongoing efforts to eliminate sensitive alleles,” said Aaron Hager, co-author, associate professor of crop science and extension specialist. We also know that the timing of the application is as important as the case of corn. We now know that safeners can increase the selectivity of sweet corn to some extent. This task is this particular task. It lays the foundation for the industry to use tools that are not widely used in trimming sequences. ”
Christopher A. Landau et al, Timing of application, formulation, and importance of cytochrome P450 genotype class in the reaction of sweet corn to Dicamba, Weed science (2022). DOI: 10.1017 / wsc.2022.5
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Quote: New research on sweet corn (February 8, 2022) obtained from https: //phys.org/news/2022-02-dicamba-safely-sweet-corn.html on February 8, 2022. Shows how to use Dicamba safely
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New research shows how dicamba can be safely used in sweet corn
Source link New research shows how dicamba can be safely used in sweet corn