Obesity significantly increased the risk of heart failure in postmenopausal women

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Women who enter menopause before the age of 45 are known to be at increased risk of heart failure, but a new study published today shows that obesity significantly increases the risk of heart failure in women over the age of 55 who experience late menopause. Increased. Journal of the American Heart AssociationAmerican Heart Association’s open access peer-reviewed journal.

The female body produces less postmenopausal estrogen and progesterone. This change may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including: heart failure, According to the American Heart Association. Menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, but some studies have shown that the average age of spontaneous menopause has increased by 1.5 years over the last 60 years. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1959-2018, the prevalence of premature menopause (under 45 years) is 12.6% and late menopause (55 years). After that) was 14.2%.

Previous studies have shown that women who experience premature menopause are at increased risk of heart failure. Heart failure is diagnosed when the heart is unable to pump enough blood and oxygen for the body’s organs to function properly.

“There is a gap in our knowledge of the potential effects of late menopause occurring in people over the age of 55 on the incidence of heart failure,” said lead research author Imo A. Ebong, MD, MS, and associate professor of medicine. And the Department of Cardiology, University of California, Davis (Sacramento, Calif.).

“We know that obesity increases the risk of developing heart failure and that the onset of menopause is associated with an increase in body fat,” Ebon said. “Our study investigated whether and how obesity affects the relationship between age at menopause and the future risk of developing heart failure.”

Investigators analyzed about 4,500 health data Postmenopausal woman Participation in atherosclerosis risk (ARIC) research in the community. ARIC is a long-term research project that began enrolling participants in 1987, focusing on measuring the association between known and suspicious. Risk factors for heart disease And the onset of heart disease in 4 adults Diverse communities USA: Forsyth County, North Carolina. Jackson, Mississippi; a suburb of Minneapolis. Washington County, Maryland. By 2019, 6 follow-up visits have been completed.

In this analysis, participants were grouped by age at the time of menopause. Under 45 years old. 45-49 years old. 50-54 years old; and 55 years old and over. The average age of study participants was 63.5 years on the fourth visit. Women diagnosed with heart failure prior to their fourth study visit were excluded from the analysis of this study.

Of the many baseline measurements and assessments performed in the fourth follow-up study, women showed age at menopause and weighed. They were then classified into one of three groups by weight: Normal body weight (when body mass index (BMI) is 18.5 to 24.9 kg / m)2); Overweight (when body mass index is 25.0 to 29.9 kg / m)2); And obesity (if Body mass index It was 30kg / m2 that’s all).In addition, if abdominal obesity is observed Waist circumference The navel was over 35 inches.

The risk of heart failure that may result from obesity as measured by BMI or waist circumference was calculated after adjusting for several other health and lifestyle risk factors. Heart diseaseType 1 or Type 2 diabetes, hypertension (or High blood pressure), Kidney function, Inflammation, left ventricular hypertrophy and previous heart attack. During an average follow-up period of 16.5 years, approximately 900 women developed heart failure, leading to hospitalization or death.

The analysis found a significant relationship between menopausal age, body mass index, waist circumference, and risk of heart failure.

  • For every 6 points of increase in BMI, the risk of developing heart failure in menopausal women under the age of 45 increased by 39%. 33% in the 45-49 year old group. It was twice (2.02 times higher) for women in the postmenopausal group (55 years and older). Higher BMI was not associated with an increased risk of heart failure in women who reached menopause between the ages of 50 and 54.
  • For menopausal women over the age of 55, every 6 inches of waist circumference increases the risk of developing heart failure almost three times (2.93 times).
  • Waist circumference did not significantly increase the risk of heart failure in women of other menopausal age groups.

“We expected that the effect of obesity on the risk of heart failure would be greatest among women who experienced premature menopause, which was not the case,” Ebon said. “The detrimental effects of obesity on the risk of heart failure were greatest among women who experienced late menopause.”

According to Ebong, the information obtained from this study may be useful in screening for heart failure and counseling postmenopausal women for the prevention of heart failure.

“The age of women entering menopause is an important factor, and women should share this information with their doctors to guide them in estimating their risk of developing heart failure,” Ebon said. “Women with early menopause should be informed of their high risk and advised to adopt healthy lifestyle and behavioral changes. menopause You need to be specifically counseled to maintain a healthy weight, prevent obesity, and reduce your risk of future heart failure. “

Current research is limited as it was not fully included woman Individually analyze different types of heart failure.

“Our analysis needs to be repeated according to the subtype of heart failure, the maintenance of ejection fraction and the decreased heart failure, for a clearer understanding. heart Estimating failure risk and providing guidance on screening and prevention programs. ”

Obesity can lead to decreased lung function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

For more information:
Journal of the American Heart Association (2022).… 1161 / JAHA.121.024461

Quote: Obesity significantly increased the risk of heart failure in late-menopausal women (April 13, 2022).

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Obesity significantly increased the risk of heart failure in postmenopausal women

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