Photosynthetic model simulates yield increase of 10-20 percent

leaf Leaf energy balance, stomatal conductance (g) s ) Dynamic stomatal response model and externally calculated state variables. [CO<sub>2</sub>], Gs and C i Predicted leaf CO 2 Uptake rate. Credit: DOI: 10.1111 / tpj.15365 “width =” 800 “height =” 411 “/>

Schematic diagram of the metabolic model of C4 photosynthesis. This model contains all metabolites and enzymes of photosynthetic carbon metabolism, as detailed earlier (Wang et al., 2014). Only the enzymes modified in this new dynamic model are shown here because they are photomodulated. The green rectangle drives environment variables that affect enzyme activity (purple) and stomatal conductance. The blue block is a state variable calculated from the energy balance of the leaves of T.leaf, Dynamic stomatal reaction model of stomatal conductance (g)NS), And from the outside [CO2], Gs and expected leaf CO2 C uptake rateMe.. Credit: DOI: 10.1111 / tpj.15365

A team at the University of Illinois has developed a model that treats photosynthesis as a dynamic process rather than an activity that is happening or not happening. This allowed the group to study the effects of many fluctuations in light experienced by crop leaves due to intermittent clouds, foliage above, and the daily passage of the sun across the sky. These fluctuations are standard in today’s densely planted crops. It is estimated that the slow adjustment to light changes reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis and costs up to 40% of potential productivity. The ability to genetically engineer crop leaves to adjust them more quickly will significantly increase the productivity and efficiency of water use.

Plants use sunlight to produce food by photosynthesis. When the sun rises every morning plant You have to be prepared to receive nutrients from the sun, which takes time. Reducing plant preparation time can be the key to improving the yield of many varieties.

“when Light When it changes, the plant needs time to get used to it. Yu Wang, a postdoctoral fellow in Illinois who led the study on a research project called Improved Photosynthetic Efficiency (RIPE), said: “It will take longer and reduce efficiency. Our goal is during the transition period. Limiting losses. We are working to make plants react faster to dynamic light environments. ”

RIPE, led by Illinois, is an international research project aimed at increasing global food production through development. Edible crops With the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Food and Agriculture Research Foundation, and the UK Department of Foreign Affairs and the British Federal Development Agency, it transforms solar energy into food more efficiently.

In this recent study, Botanical journal, RIPE researchers show that treating photosynthesis as a dynamic process improves the response time of C4 plants such as maize (plants that use C4 carbon fixation for photosynthesis) and can adapt more quickly to light fluctuations. I did.

First, they validated the model against actual photosynthetic measurements in fluctuating light performed on corn, sorghum, and sugar cane. They then used the model to predict which steps in photosynthesis would limit the process’s response to three light fluctuations. produce..

“The important thing to recognize is in the canopy of the crop, where the light is constantly changing, but 99% of the studies that limit photosynthesis are related to constant light. This is a field crop. It’s something you can never experience with leaves, “says RIPE director Stephen. Chairman of the Ikenbury Contribution University, a long-time crop science and plant biology researcher at the Karl R. Wars Institute for Genome Biology, Illinois. “Maybe we overlooked the idea that improving the efficiency of fluctuating light, not just constant light, would produce great results.”

By treating photosynthesis As Dynamic process, The team was able to find out which segment of the process was limiting the response speed. Through modeling and simulation, they identified two proteins that they believed were essential for regulation. This summer, the group worked in partnership with another RIPE research team that regulates two proteins in corn, and a team from the US Department of Energy’s Advanced Bioproducts and Bioenergy Innovation Center (CABBI) in Illinois, sorghum and sugar cane. Continues. Manipulate these proteins.

“I think this has great potential,” Long said. “This can increase productivity by 10-20%. More importantly, this is a huge leap when compared to the annual yield increase achieved by breeding. Of course, this is achieved. We’ll see if we can do it over time. ”

According to the model, increasing soybean yield by adapting photosynthesis to fleeting shadows

For more information:
Yu Wang et al, towards a dynamic photosynthetic model to guide yield improvement in C4 crops, Botanical journal (2021). DOI: 10.1111 / tpj.15365

Quote: Photosynthesis model obtained from on August 25, 2021 10-20% yield increase (8 2021) 25th of March)

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Photosynthetic model simulates yield increase of 10-20 percent

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