Researchers develop methodologies for rationalized control of material deformation

The conformal transformation of Kagome metamaterials sets an example of dramatic possibilities. Credits: Georgia Tech

Is it possible to crumple two sheets of paper in exactly the same way? Probably not. It is notorious for being difficult to control because its flexible structure, from paper to biopolymers and membranes, is so flexible that it allows it to undergo many types of large deformations. Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Amsterdam, and Leiden University shed new light on this fundamental task, and as recently announced, new physics theories provide accurate predictions of deformations of specific structures. Demonstrated. Nature Communications..

In this paper, Georgia Tech’s Michael Czajkowski and D. Zeb Rocklin, Universiteit van Amsterdam’s Corentin Coulais, and AMOLF and Universiteit Leiden’s Martin van Hecke approach, pronounced, or non-linear intuitive geometry of highly studied exotic elastic materials. Clarify the scientific description. — Soft transformation. Demonstrates how to activate these transformations on demand with minimal input. This new theory reveals that flexible mechanical structures are dominated by electromagnetic waves, phase transitions, and even some of the same mathematics as black holes.

“Many other systems, from the human body and microbes to clothing and industrial robots, are in some ways strong and robust, but otherwise struggle to be flexible and obedient,” Loughlin said. Said. “These structures solve that problem in a very elegant way that allows a single folding mechanism to generate a wide range of deformation families. A single folding mode can transform a structure into an infinite family of shapes. I showed it. “

A brief history of metamaterials

Metamaterials display a variety of counter-intuitive physics that have been steadily revealed in intensive research over the last decade, relying on the use of hinges, creases, cuts, and “flexible” ingredients. .. Many of these new movements stem from the development of Authetics, a material that tends to shrink in all directions when compressed from any direction, rather than bulging outwards. The structure chosen by the researchers, the “rotating square,” is already one of the most researched. MetamaterialThey have discovered a whole new and powerful physics hidden in that transformation.

“Usually complex real-world structures go against analytical physics. It becomes even more thrilling when Michael discovers that his conformal predictions can account for 99.9% of the variance of Corentin’s structure. “I did,” Rocklin said. “This new approach enables us to predict and control rugged and flexible structures, from the size of skyscrapers to the microscale.”

Researchers develop methodologies for rationalized control of material deformation

The “Rotating Squares” metamaterial transforms to an equiangular angle, and the right-angled blue grid remains right-angled after being transformed by the foot-shaped object. Credits: Georgia Tech

Conformal findings

The results of this paper rely on new observations that these largest auxetic metamaterials are conformally deformed, which researchers have confirmed with high accuracy. This means that the angles drawn on the material before and after the transformation will appear to be the same. This seemingly mediocre observation activates a powerful mathematical structure.

This conformal insight enables a variety of pen and paper analysis advances. Non-linear energy functionals, deformation fitting methods, new prediction methods, etc. This is an accurate, reversible, mathematically easy way to manipulate boundaries.By choosing how much to extend the boundary, the whole shape You can choose from endless possibilities.

Such deformation control is still limited by the intrinsic nature of the conformal. Deformation.. However, the underlying principles are very common, and researchers are working to apply these new principles to more diverse and complex structures.

“Our results are very promising for soft microscope robotics being developed for non-invasive surgical purposes,” said Czajkowski. “Scalability and precise external control are two main goals in this effort, and our style of deformation control seems to be perfectly suited for this task.”

With the steadily increasing area of ​​metamaterials, the jump to more provocative applications will not be far away. Manipulable facevarious New grabber And hands, and even elastic worms Thread a series of needles.. These advances are essential for developing soft microscope robots that need to be manipulated externally to move through the body and perform non-invasive surgery.

Origami and kirigami stimulate the design of mechanical metamaterials

For more information:
Michael Czajkowski et al, Isometric Elasticity of Mechanism-Based Metamaterials, Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-021-27825-0

Quote: Researchers have streamlined the material deformation (February 8, 2022) obtained on February 8, 2022 from https: // Develop a methodology for control

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Researchers develop methodologies for rationalized control of material deformation

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