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Researchers examine the relationship between the rate of non-equilibrium processes and the rate at which they generate entropy.

> Ωn1 is set to guarantee the steady-state dissipation process, and the lifetime of the excited state is 6.9 ns. In other words, the attenuation factor is Γ / 2π = 23.1MHz, but the attenuation factor in the metastable state is 1.2 seconds, so it can be ignored. Credit: DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.128.050603″ width=”800″ height=”209″/>

A level scheme constructed for an effective two-level system in contact with two heat baths of trapped 40Ca + ions. (A) Levels constructed for dissipation channels for hot baths. (B) Levels constructed for dissipation channels for heat baths. Each dissipative channel consists of two heterochromatic lasers with wavelengths of 729 and 854 nm, respectively. Where n = 1, 2, 3, and 4 rabbi frequencies Ωn1 (Ωn2) represent sublevel sublevel resonant couplings. Attenuation from the ground state (metastable state) to the sublevels of the metastable state (excited state) and from the excited state to the ground state achieves an effective procedure for the dissipative channel. Here, Ωn2 >> Ωn1 is set to guarantee the steady-state dissipation process, and the lifetime of the excited state is 6.9 ns. In other words, the attenuation factor is Γ / 2π = 23.1MHz, but the attenuation factor in the metastable state is 1.2 seconds, so it can be ignored. Credit: DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.128.050603

A team of researchers from multiple institutions in China have examined the relationship between the rate at which a non-equilibrium process occurs and the rate at which it produces entropy.In their paper published in the journal Physical review letterResearchers describe experiments with individual calcium atoms in ion traps and their findings on the relationship between their lifetime and the rate at which energy can be exchanged using different types of baths.


Two years ago, physicists Massimiliano Esposito and Giammaria Falasco used a statistical mathematical overview to show that there is a relationship between the lifetime of non-equilibrium processes and the rate of entropy associated with them.In this new initiative, researchers used traps to test the ideas described in the work of Esposito and Falasco. Calcium ion..

In their experiment, a Chinese team used light to stimulate calcium atoms in the trap and measure changes in the rate of entropy. In this case, it was necessary to measure the rate of change as the system moved from one. Electronic state Separately. However, the change in electronic state does not occur smoothly. Instead, they jump in and occur at random times. Researchers also note that quantum jump theory assumes that such jumps are dominated by the dissipation of energy between a given system and its environment.

To measure jumps, researchers used multiple lasers to create an artificial environment for trapped ions. This is called a heat bath. In particular, separate lasers were also used to excite the electronic states of the ions that are not part of the quantum jump. The researchers then manipulated the laser to control the transition, one acting as a “cold bath” and the other as a “hot bath.” The result is a model of the system described by Esposito and Falasco.

They suggest that their research can help researchers working on quantum computers by showing how the dissipation of such systems works. They also state that their work can be applied to classic appliances as well.


Physicists identify the reward between speed and entropy


For more information:
L.-L. Yan et al, Experimental Verification of Dissipation and Time Uncertainty Relationship, Physical review letter (2022). DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.128.050603

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Quote: Researchers examine the relationship between the rate of non-equilibrium processes and the rate at which they generate entropy (2022, February 23). Obtained from https: //phys.org/news/2022-02-rsearchers-relationship-nonbalance-entropy on February 23, 2022.html

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Researchers examine the relationship between the rate of non-equilibrium processes and the rate at which they generate entropy.

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