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Researchers identify SARS-CoV-2 mutants that may escape the cell-mediated immune response

PLOS Computational Biology CC-BY 4.0 (creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) “width =” 800 “height =” 402 “/>

A world map showing the existence of population samples carrying alleles of the A * 74 family and isolates (green circles) with escape mutations in these families. Credits: Foix A et al. , 2022, PLOS Computational BiologyCC-BY 4.0 (creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

The number of existing strains of SARS-CoV-2, as well as other future variants that may develop, may evade the cytotoxic T cell response of the immune system in some parts of the population. Here are the conclusions of a new modeling study published on February 10th. PLOS Computational Biology By Antonio Martín-Galiano and his colleagues at the Charles III Institute of Health in Spain.


Human T cell responses are genetically encoded by HLA molecules — Different individuals There are different HLA’s programmed to recognize different parts, or pathogens that invade based on the “epitope” of the pathogen.Thousands of different HLA molecules population Also, with the thousands of epitopes that may be contained in a particular virus, it is not possible to experimentally assess the immune response of all human HLA alleles against all viral variants. but, Method of calculation You can make this task easier.

In a new study, researchers first determined the complete set of epitopes from the original reference strain of SARS-CoV-2 from Wuhan, China. The team discovered 1,222 epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 associated with major HLA subtypes, covering approximately 90% of the population. At least 9 out of 10 can initiate a T cell response to COVID-19 based on these 1,222 epitopes.

Researchers then found mutations in these epitopes in any of the 118,000 different SARS-CoV-2 isolates from around the world listed in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) dataset. I analyzed whether it was a computer. Forty-seven percent of the epitopes they showed were mutated in at least one existing isolate. In some cases, existing isolates had mutations in multiple epitope regions, but cumulative mutations did not affect more than 15% of epitopes of a particular HLA allele type.When the team analyzed the susceptibility alleles and the geographic origin of each escaped isolate, the team found that they co-existed in some. Geographical area— Including sub-Saharan Africa and East and Southeast Asia — suggests potential genetic pressure on cytotoxic T cell responses in these regions.

“The accumulation of these changes in independent isolates is still too low to threaten the world’s population,” the authors say. “Our protocol has identified mutations that are relevant to a particular population and may guarantee deeper surveillance.”

However, Martín-Galiano states that “unaware SARS-CoV-2 mutations” may “threate the cytotoxic T response in the human subpopulation” in the future.


Immunodominant epitopes identified for designing peptide-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2


For more information:
Predicted effects of viral mutation status on cytotoxic response to Foix A, López D, Díez-Fuertes F, McConnell MJ, Martin-Galiano AJ (2022) SARS-CoV-2. PLoS Comput Biol 18 (2): e1009726. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009726

Quote: Researchers have obtained a cell-mediated immune response obtained on February 10, 2022 from https: //phys.org/news/2022-02-sars-cov-variants-potential-cellular (February 10, 2022). ) Identifies SARS-CoV-2 variants that may avoid-immune.html

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Researchers identify SARS-CoV-2 mutants that may escape the cell-mediated immune response

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