Dietary restrictions are arguably the most promising non-genetic method for extending the life expectancy and healthy life expectancy of many model organisms, including mammals. Researchers are scrambling to develop interventions that mimic the benefits of dietary restrictions in humans (generally struggling to maintain a Spartan diet), but Professor Buck’s Dr. Pankai Kapahi In our lab, dietary benefits often vary between individuals, and even within those individuals. He and his colleagues are challenging this area to change their approach to dietary restrictions and aim for accurate and personalized interventions.In the review published in Cell metabolism, They provide a subspecialty dubbing precision nutrition framework based on biomarkers affected by genetics, gender, tissue, and age.
“When it comes to dieting, everyone wants an” one size fits all “intervention. Our lab and several other labs have shown that this is not the case, “says Kapahi, a team that aims to understand the mechanism. Nutrient signaling and metabolism affect aging, Age-related diseases.. “I had to change my view of aging. Many of us are deeply involved in the subtleties of understanding what I call a two-dimensional biological pathway. And these Forget the other dimension of different pathways. The situation is important and no real progress can be made in this area without it, as the intervention will eventually fail and people will be disappointed. , We will hurt the field. “
Studies of genetically distinct strains of Drosophila have shown the need for precision nutrition
In 2020, the first author of this review, Dr. Kenneth Wilson, a postdoctoral fellow, performed a genome-wide analysis of 160 genetically distinct strains of Drosophila melanogaster that ate the same Spartan diet.Published on Current biology, He and his team have shown that life expectancy and healthy life expectancy are not linked under dietary restrictions. 97% of strains showed some increase in life expectancy or healthy life expectancy with a limited diet, but only 50% responded significantly positively to both dietary restrictions. Thirteen percent of the strains were more active, but died prematurely due to dietary restrictions. 5% lived longer, but spent a lot of time on poor health.The remaining 32% of the strain showed no advantages or disadvantages in life expectancy or healthy life expectancy, or Negative reaction To both.
“I think it’s important for everyone in the field to understand and understand that there are different ways to see what the intervention is doing. In some cases there may be a reaction. , The reaction may not work in another strain. It’s the same species, “says Wilson. “Conversely, if you don’t see anything, it doesn’t mean that the intervention you’re testing doesn’t work, but that you’re not using the right model for that intervention,” Wilson said. When it comes to diet, it’s also important for researchers to be aware of the potential for a break between extended life expectancy and healthy life expectancy. “I think the last thing we all want to do is give people a longer period of health problems.”
What is included in the review
This review is a detailed introductory book covering several forms of dietary restriction, from calorie restriction to various forms of intermittent fasting, and diets that limit proteins, carbohydrates, certain amino acids, micronutrients, and metabolites. And yeast, worms, flies, and mice. Researchers describe IGF-1-like signaling and nutrient sensing mechanisms such as TOR and AMPK. They are discussing metabolic reprogramming regulators, including sirtuins and NADs, and circadian clock regulators. They include fat and lipid metabolism, protein homeostasis and autophagy, reduced cellular senescence, and mediating effects on mitochondrial function.
The authors cover the complexity of measuring aging in response to dietary restrictions, how to use lifespan analysis to decipher the mechanism of dietary restriction, possible gene-specific longevity responses to dietary interventions, and male and female. Describes the role of gender in species with. The authors also cover the effects of dietary restrictions and molecular drivers on both simple animal and mammalian disease models, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. They also provide an overview of the discussion between healthy life expectancy and life expectancy measurements and summarize the molecular biomarkers of aging that have been used in dietary restriction studies.
“We want to outline scientists entering the field of aging research so that they can start separating forests from trees with regard to dietary restrictions,” says Kapahi. “We also want to discuss the usefulness in understanding the exceptions to the current paradigm that dietary restrictions are totally beneficial in all species studied, while providing light at the end of the tunnel. I thought. With dietary restrictions in the context of precision medicine, everything people are learning in this area applies to greater efforts to improve and expand human health. In conclusion, “negative” or ” There is no “positive” data. Insights can be gathered from all of them, and the efforts of a large team are required to fully develop precision nutrition science. ”
What we know about humans and dietary restrictions
This review also includes data on the reported effects of dietary restrictions in humans. Current data show that dietary restrictions have a positive effect on neurodegeneration and diabetes, Cardiovascular disease, And for kidney disease, the authors report that limiting the foods we eat reduces bone mineral density, which can lead to osteoporosis.
For normal aging, dietary restrictions can provide a wide range of benefits to many physiological systems, according to researchers, but data show that restricted diets negatively limit wound healing and recovery from fractures. It can affect your ability. Although dietary restrictions upregulate muscle preservation, the data also show that muscle growth is inhibited. The authors state that exercise may improve these deficiencies and adds another factor that needs to be considered when studying the effects of dietary restrictions. Data show that dietary restrictions improve respiratory function, but they also show that at the same time, athletic performance can be impaired.
“The age of people who use dietary restrictions is also a factor that needs to be investigated and considered,” says Wilson. “It has been shown that older people may not want to limit their dietary intake, especially when it comes to proteins that help maintain muscle mass.”
How about your gender?
Gender is one of the main factors driving various responses to dietary restrictions, and Kapahi repeats the lesser-known but appropriate maxim. “When it comes to DNA, human males have more in common with male chimpanzees than human females.” He adds that in flies and mice, females are much more sensitive to dietary changes than males, probably based on their physiological effects on the reproductive system and their interaction with other systems. He also points out that, until recently, most studies in mice and humans have been disproportionately involved in men.
Women are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Two-thirds of Americans living in memory-stealing states are women, and experts say the fact that women tend to live longer than men cannot explain the numbers. Wilson, who is currently studying neurodegeneration in fly, mouse, and human cell cultures, says diet may one day be effective. “Diet has been shown to improve nerve function,” he says. “I don’t know all the mechanisms involved, but teasing the relationship between gender and dietary restrictions will be part of the plan.”
Impact on clinical trials and potential interventions
Kapahi says he takes a personalized approach Dietary restrictions May have more targeted and beneficial results Clinical trials Researchers can identify and recruit a subset of people who are more likely to respond to a particular intervention. “There is a good chance that we can also increase the number of potential interventions,” he says. “There may already be effective treatments that are discounted because they have not been fully tested on a particular strain or species of a model organism. There are real benefits to giving up the search for” universal “. .. “Https://medicalxpress.com/” Magic pills for the physical problems of aging “solution. ”
Kapahi hopes that more research and conferences focused on precision nutrition science will help develop this area.
Other back institute collaborators include Mannish Chamori and Tyler A. Hilsabeck. Co-authors include Manish Pandey, Sakshi Bansal, and Jitan Jarichaura of the Regional Center for Biotechnology, Haryana, India.
Cell metabolism (2021). DOI: 10.1016 / j.cmet.2021.08.018
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Quote: Researchers study Precision Nutrition Science (September 22, 2021) obtained from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-09-framework-precision-nutrigeroscience.html on September 22, 2021. Provides a framework for
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Researchers provide a framework for studying precision nutrition science
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