New findings from the University of Minnesota School of Medicine help clarify why some people are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes because they are overweight.
Previous related studies have shown that low birth weight in infants is a strong determinant of ultimate obesity and type 2. DiabetesThe placenta of low birth weight infants has decreased levels of mTOR (mechanical target of rapamycin), and the placenta of larger infants has elevated levels of mTOR. Based on that study, the U of M Medical School study was published. JCI InsightThis is the first time that mTOR, a placental nutrition sensor protein, has been directly involved as a regulator of infant weight at birth.
“It is clear from human and preclinical studies that type 2 diabetes is of fetal origin, but it is not yet known how metabolic dysfunction or programming of type 2 diabetes occurs,” integrated biophysiology. Associate professor of the department. “Our study is the first to show the direct role of placental proteins like mTOR.”
They found in a preclinical study that:
- After eliminating mTOR in the placenta Female descendants Low birth weight, Increasing risk About obesity and insulin resistance in adulthood.
- In contrast, after increasing mTOR signaling in the placenta, adult women descendants Protected from obesity from a high-fat diet.
“Ah Causal relationship The relationship between placental mTOR and offspring metabolic health has not been previously tested. placenta Brian Akafon, the first author of the Alejandro Lab and a post-baccalauréat trainee, said, “Our hope is to be able to identify proteins that may be therapeutically targeted through the mother. Type 2 Health to reduce the spread of diabetes. “
The research team will continue to investigate which metabolic tissues in the offspring are permanently affected by placental mTOR signaling. Postdoctoral fellow Dr. Megan Bitch focuses on epigenetics, which is not accompanied by changes in the underlying DNA sequence, that is, genetic changes in gene expression.
Brian Akhaphong et al., Placental mTOR-Complex1 regulates fetal programming of obesity and insulin resistance in mice. JCI Insight (2021). DOI: 10.1172 / jci.insight.149271
University of Minnesota School of Medicine
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School of Medicine identifies placental protein as a possible birth weight regulator
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