Sequencing puts carnivore chromosomes in context

New studies show that the chromosomes of carnivores (cats, dogs, bears) show similar 3D structures, even though they are separated by more than 50 million years of evolution. Credits: Image: Clouded Leopard, Nashville Zoo, CC 3.0; African Wild Dog, Flickr uses Pim GMX, CC 2.0. Salmon and grizzly bear, N. Boak, National Park Service.

Studies comparing animal genomes generally focus on the DNA sequence itself. A new study by researchers at the University of California, Davis shows how chromosomal three-dimensional scaffolding is associated between several species of carnivorous animals and is used to identify related genes across species and locations. They provide a new approach to “comparative scaffolding” that can be done in context.The work was released in the week of February 21st Minutes of the National Academy of SciencesAlso demonstrates the power of large collections of genomes such as the Vertebrate Genome Project and the Earth Biogenome Project.

Professors Marco Corbo, Joanna Damas, and Harris Lewin of the University of California, Davis Genome Center and the Department of Evolutionary Ecology identified using a technique called Hi-C or chromatin conformation capture sequence with Brigham Young University and Madeline Bursell of the Smithsonian Society. ..3D shape of the area Chromosome With 11 species of carnivores from 3 families. Clouded leopard, leopard, tiger, cheetah, puma. Dingo, African wild dog, red fox. Asiatic black bear, polar bear, grizzly bear. This study is based on data from the Vertebrate Genomes Project, which is affiliated with the Earth BioGenome Project.

Chromosomes are composed of chromatin, which contains both protein and DNA. The structure of chromatin is composed of multiple levels. The DNA itself can form a loop. These can be organized into topologically associated domains. These domains form compartments. And finally, the compartments form regions within the chromosome.

Conserved chromosomal structure

This Hi-C analysis examined the placement at the chromosomal conformational level.Which one it shows gene They are physically close to each other in the three-dimensional space of the cell nucleus. Physical proximity can affect how genes are turned on or off, even if they are relatively far apart in terms of DNA sequences.

Teams have found that 3D chromatin structures are highly conserved within and throughout the three families of carnivores, despite 50 million years of evolution and chromosomal rearrangement in the case of orthologous genes, or genes associated with offspring. I found that. This suggests that these genes encode important genomic functions.

The authors call this approach of comparing the three-dimensional structures of chromosomes “comparative scaffolding”. This approach makes it easy to identify related genes across groups of flora and fauna and place them in the correct context.

Launched in November 2018, the goal of the EarthBioGenome Project is to provide a complete DNA sequencing catalog of all 1.8 million plant, animal, fungi, and unicellular eukaryotes. The goal of the Vertebrate Genomes Project is to generate a near-error-free reference. genome A collection of all 66,000 extant vertebrates. This allows us to study how genes contributed to these evolutions and survivals. Race..

A huge project is underway to sequence the genomes of all complex species on Earth

For more information:
Preservation of chromatin conformation in carnivores, Minutes of the National Academy of Sciences (2022). DOI: 10.1073 / pnas.2120555119..

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Sequencing puts carnivore chromosomes in context

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