Macrophages (immune cells that fight infections and repair the damage they cause) often increase the inflammation that attacks (known as “M1”) and reduce inflammation to initiate the healing process. It falls into two categories of things (“M2”). ).
Researchers in the laboratory of Kathryn Miller-Jensen, an associate professor of biomedical engineering and molecular, cellular, and developmental biology, used single-cell RNA sequences to determine how individual macrophages respond to different stimuli. I investigated in detail whether to do it. They found that these cells tended to be multitaskers, but some cells tended to respond to specific queues.The results are published in Nature Communications..
The M1–M2 paradigm helped scientists understand the innate immune response. However, researchers have long believed that macrophages are more flexible in vivo than these two categories of systems suggest. That is, cells can be both attackers and healers, depending on the situation. But what do individual macrophages do when faced with M1 and M2 cues simultaneously in a controlled environment such as a tissue culture dish?
“No one has seen it, so we decided to give it a try with single-cell sequencing,” says Miller-Jensen. By doing so, the Miller-Jensen lab was able to obtain more detailed images of macrophage responses when stimulated by both inflammatory and degradative stimuli. They found great variability in certain important functions, such as secretion, including a subset of cells that appeared to respond to only one or the other clue.
“While stimuli are environmental cues, we believe that intracellular regulatory networks are volatile and can respond more strongly to cues at any given time,” says Miragensen. ..
This is an important step in better understanding the different types of macrophages.
“It can help identify how macrophages are present in these different states of the tumor, or in the wounds that do not heal, and in other diseased environments,” she said. “The more advanced understanding of which subsets exist, the better we may be able to understand how to target and regulate them.”
Researchers note that diverse responses to opposite cues may allow macrophages to adapt more easily to the changing environment and to quickly transition from attack mode to focus on tissue repair. ..
“Some macrophages may be prepared to respond and become attackers, as they may need to respond to many clues at the same time,” she said. “Therefore, when looking at both clues at the same time, it is important to have at least some cells ready to secrete what needs to be secreted, but you may need to do something else. So it may not be all. “
Miller-Jensen also stated that the single-cell RNA sequencing technology and the single-cell secretion apparatus, also invented by Professor Rong Fan of Biomedical Engineering, played an important role in making groundbreaking observations. It was.
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Andrés R. Muñoz-Rojasetal. Co-stimulation with opposite macrophage polarization cues leads to orthogonal secretion programs in individual cells, Nature Communications (2021). DOI: 10.1038 / s41467-020-20540-2
Courtesy of Yale University
Quote: A closer look at how immune cells attack and heal (January 21, 2021) reveals January 21, 2021 https://phys.org/news/2021-01-closer-immune Obtained from -cells.html.
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Take a closer look at how immune cells attack and heal
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