Target cancer on a nanoscale

Figure 1: Nanoparticles injected directly into a cancerous mass are distributed throughout the tumor and enter the cancer cells, damaging the DNA without adversely affecting other organs.Credit: Hiroki Kato and others

Scientists at the Faculty of Nuclear Medicine and Tracer Movement, Osaka University, have developed a new system for targeted cancer radiotherapy using Asstatin-211-labeled gold nanoparticles. In addition to the localization of nanoparticles, the limited range and half-life of radiation makes healthy cells much less likely to be harmed. This study may lead to effective cancer treatments without the side effects of current technology.

Brachytherapy is a method of treating cancer using a sealed source of radiation called a “seed” that is placed directly inside the patient’s body. In particular, it has been shown to be effective against certain tumors of the prostate, head, neck and brain.However, like other formats radiation Treatment, brachytherapy can also cause serious side effects such as vomiting and headaches.To be modest and maximize the effectiveness of treatment, more sophisticated methods of targeting radiation are needed. Healthy cells..

Currently, a team of scientists led by Osaka University Radioisotope To ensure that the radiation is localized only to the cancer cells. Astatine-211 is an unstable isotope of the element astatine, which contains one extra neutron.This causes radioactive decay during release Alpha particles.. Due to their large size, rapidly moving alpha particles can cause fatal double-strand breaks in the DNA of cancer cells while staying close to the source of radiation. Also, the half-life of astatine-211 is very short, about 7 hours, so Nanoparticles It can leak into healthy tissue. This allows large therapeutic doses to be administered without causing serious side effects. “We have developed a new, safe and powerful cancer treatment using gold nanoparticles containing astatine 211, which causes severe damage to the target DNA but has a very short range of alpha rays in the body. We will release it, “explains the lead author, Hiroki Kato.

Target cancer on a nanoscale

Figure 2: Gold nanoparticles (red) are internalized by cells and accumulate around the nucleus (blue).Credit: Hiroki Kato and others

Nanoparticles were injected directly into the tumor using a rat or mouse model. The team found that the nanoparticles entered the cancer cells but did not spread to other organs during the period corresponding to the six radioactive half-lives.At the same time, the nanoparticles cancer cell. “We have demonstrated that direct injection of this nanodrug into tumors can strongly suppress tumor growth,” said lead author Koichi Fukase. Gold nanoparticles are easy to make and Astatine-211 can be made with a cyclotron. Nuclear fuel, This new treatment can be made widely available in hospitals.

Target cancer on a nanoscale

Figure 3: (A) In scintigraphy, radioactivity is always observed only in the tumor (arrow) after drug injection and not in any other area. (B) Astatine-labeled gold nanoparticles strongly suppress tumor growth.Credit: Hiroki Kato and others

Gold nanoparticles injected into the tumor may improve radiation therapy for cancer

For more information:
Hiroki Kato et al., Intratumoral administration of astatine-211-labeled gold nanoparticles for alpha therapy, Nanobiotechnology Journal (2021). DOI: 10.1186 / s12951-021-00963-9

Provided by
Osaka University

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Target cancer on a nanoscale

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