Obesity is a well-known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Large-scale new studies are now adding evidence that it also contributes to the much less common type 1 diabetes.
In this study of about 1.5 million Israeli teens, obese people are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes by early adulthood than people in the normal weight range2. It turned out to be twice as expensive.
Experts said the findings add the following evidence: obesity It should be considered a risk factor for type 1 diabetes.
Frank Martin, Senior Director of Research at JDRF, a nonprofit organization funding the study of type 1 diabetes, said:
Martin, who was not involved in the study, said previous studies on obesity and type 1 diabetes focused primarily on children. Currently, these findings are 10’s For type 1 diabetes in adulthood.
Diabetes exists in two main forms. Type 2 diabetes is by far the most common.Occurs when the body becomes improperly used Hormone insulin, This plays an important role in transferring sugar from food to somatic cells and using it as fuel.Elderly and obesity are the two main Risk factor Because of illness.
In contrast, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It is due to an abnormal immune system attack on insulin-producing cells in the pancreas and is often diagnosed in children and teens.
Both forms of diabetes cause cells to accumulate sugar in the bloodstream because they cannot take it up. However, the two are treated differently. People with type 2 diabetes Healthy dietExercise and Weight loss— Often you will also need oral medications.
People with type 1 diabetes, on the other hand, need to take synthetic insulin to survive by daily injections or by body-mounted pumps.
Dr. Gilad Twig, Principal Investigator for the new study, is not entirely clear why obesity increases the risk of type 1.
However, the general belief is that obesity can cause the onset of the disease in some people who are genetically susceptible to type 1 diabetes.
According to Twig, there are various theories about the exact mechanism of Tel Aviv University in Israel.For example, obesity is a fuel Chronic inflammation In the body, it may contribute to the abnormal immune response that characterizes type 1 diabetes.
Obesity also has other effects that can impair immune function, such as vitamin D deficiency and changes in the bacterial composition of the intestine, Twig’s team said.
“It’s likely that there’s more than one mechanism involved,” Martin said.
He said the findings are in line with general thinking about the causes of type 1 diabetes. There is a genetic vulnerability that causes one or more environmental exposures to stimulate the immune system to oppose the body. Martin pointed out the virus as an example: studies have linked certain viral infections to an increased risk of type 1 diabetes.
These latest findings were published in the journal on June 5th. Diabetes, To coincide with the presentation at the American Diabetes Association’s annual meeting in New Orleans.
Researchers used data from more than 1.4 million Israeli teenagers aged 16 to 19 years who underwent a medical examination for military service between 1996 and 2016. During that period, 777 people were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The average age is 25 years.
The Twig team found a clear pattern. The risk of being diagnosed with this disease increased in parallel with weight during the teens. Compared to normal-weight teens, those who were overweight had a 54% higher risk and those who were obese had twice the risk.
Researchers pointed out that almost 60% of children and teens in the United States become obese by the age of 35, and most of them are by the age of teens. Findings suggest that as the level of obesity rises, an increase in type 1 diabetes is expected.
This study is not the first to link obesity with type 1 diabetes. However, past studies have been small and focused primarily on children, Twig said.
“Our study shows that adolescent obesity is associated with type 1 diabetes in the general population, thereby maintaining a healthy weight throughout childhood and adolescence. “We emphasize that,” Twig said.
This is an important point, Martin said, as type 1 diabetes affects children, but about half of the cases are diagnosed in adults.
Young people at high risk for type 1 diabetes may need to be especially careful to maintain a healthy weight, Twig said. The family history of the disease is a risk factor, but it also attacks people without such a history.
For JDRF Type 1 diabetes.
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Teenage obesity can cause type 1 diabetes
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