The study looks at risk factors and prevention of smoking between transgender and gender-enhanced adults

Credit: Vera Kratochvil / Public domain

Although smoking prevalence among adults in the United States has declined significantly over the past few decades, smoking disparities remain among some population groups, affecting disproportionately to members of vulnerable communities. ..

One such group is transgender and gender-expansive (TGE) adults who are twice as likely to smoke as cisgender individuals. Studies show that, given the right resources and opportunities, TGE smokers may want to quit smoking just like cisgender smokers, but effective smoking cessation interventions for TGE adults are underdeveloped. It remains.

A new research study led by Anditan of the University of Pennsylvania’s Annenberg Communication School aims to fill this gap. This study aims to identify factors that increase the likelihood of adults with TGE smoking more or less and to reduce smoking in the long run. Use of tobacco And related health inequalities between TGE populations.

Tan and his colleagues used a community-based approach that involved participants in aspects of the study, including: Data collection, Analysis, and Interpretation-This will enable TGE individuals to work with teams to understand the factors that influence smoking habits and inform future interventions.

The study’s unique qualitative study design combines methodologies such as focus group discussions and private social media groups with a new approach, digital photographic audio data collection.

In the photovoice approach, participants used the telephone to take pictures the moment they felt they were smoking, or for some reason they were unable to take pictures. This is in contrast to traditional research, where people may be asked to recall their experiences a week, a month, or even a year ago, Tan says. Photovoice allowed the team to present the participants’ experiences in a visually rich, connected and real-time manner.

Participants then shared those photos with a small private Facebook group. This is fun and positive for many, Tan says.

“When we designed the study, we were worried that it would be tedious and burdensome for the participants,” says Tan. “But the 47 participants who completed the survey gave us positive feedback. They enjoyed being co-creators of knowledge.”

In combination with focus group transcripts, researchers analyzed photographs and captions to generate themes related to smoking risk and protective factors. They identified six main themes: stress experiences, gender affirmations, health consciousness, social impacts, daily behavior, and environmental clues.

Themes were not always neatly divided into risk or protective factors. For example, affirming gender gives individuals confidence that they will not smoke. At the same time, a person identified as a man may want to pick up a cigarette as a confirmation of this identity.

“Many of these risk factors may seem similar to those of cisgender smokers and stressors, but among adults with TGE, these stressful experiences are much more frequent. “Tan says.

TGE participants also experienced gender minority stressors such as internalized transphobia, gender-based violence, discrimination and stigma. Research participants recalled cases of incorrect gender at work, school, and in public places. Participants shared the experience of being physically assaulted by strangers on the streets as a result of their appearance.

“These are truly traumatic experiences, important risk factors for smoking within this population, and certainly outweigh the stressful experiences experienced by cis-gender smokers,” Annenberg said. Says Tan, director of Health Communications and Equity Labs.

The results of this study will be used to assist in the design of culturally sensitive messaging to promote smoking cessation for TGE individuals through social media. The data and lessons collected from this work will also inform further research involving the community. In this study, research participants act as collaborators on new culturally sensitive approaches. The team is seeking funding for three years of ongoing research to build TGE’s personalized interventions.

The study “Project Spring: A Study of Smoking Risks and Protective Factors Between Transgender and Gender-Expanding Individuals Using Digital PhotoVoice” Journal of Medical Internet Research.

In addition to Tan, the authors include Elaine Humvee of the Annenberg Communication School. Priscilla K. Gazarian; Sabreen Darwish; Bethany C. Farnum; Faith Coloma-Coker; Suha Ballout, University of Massachusetts Boston; Jennifer Potter, Harvard Medical School, Fenway Institute, Beth Israel Lahei Health.

Transgender teens may turn to substance use to deal with stress

For more information:
Andy SL Tan et al, Interpersonal Smoking Protection and Risk Factors for Transgender and Gender Expansion (Project SPRING): A Qualitative Study Using Digital PhotoVoice, JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (2021). DOI: 10.2196 / 27417

Quote: In the survey, transgender and gender-enhanced adults (10 2021) obtained on October 6, 2021 from https: // We are investigating the risk factors and prevention of smoking (6th of March).

This document is subject to copyright. No part may be reproduced without written permission, except for fair transactions for personal investigation or research purposes. The content is provided for informational purposes only.

The study looks at risk factors and prevention of smoking between transgender and gender-enhanced adults

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